WORLD SYSTEMS, a new approach to maritime traffic in the development policies of port cities
In the context of research projects into the dynamics of port cities, AIVP would like to draw its active members’ attention to the World Systems project. This project, financed by the European Union to the tune of one and a half million euros, began in March 2013 and will go on for 5 years. The World Systems project is under the scientific responsibility of César Ducruet, CRNS (French National Centre for Scientific Research) researcher and member of AIVP’s network of experts.“The World Seastems project aims to map and to analyze the changing spatial pattern of the world economy across 300 years from a maritime perspective. It will exploit untapped vessel movement data on a world scale since 1734, date of the first publication of Lloyd’s List. Such data offer disaggregated information on weekly inter-port flows with detailed descriptions of vessels as well as their dates of departure and arrival at world’s ports. Despite the vital importance of maritime transport for economic development and international trade, no research has been done on the long-term evolution of the global maritime network. There are three main goals of the project.
First, it will map for the first time the spatial distribution of almost 300 years of maritime flows in a dynamic and interactive manner. A geomatics visualisation platform will also integrate advanced analytical tools to simplify the pattern of shipping routes and corridors, and to extract meaningful information from the original data, with both scientific and pedagogical outcomes. Second, the project will look at the topological and spatial structure of the global network of inter-port links with reference to graph theory, social network analysis, and complex networks. The global properties of the network can be compared with general models of networks, while the evolution of macroscopic measures will be explored in relation with wider structural and conjectural changes in the world system (e.g. conflicts, revolutions, crises, territorial reconfigurations) in terms of network expansion, shrinkage, concentration and polarization. Internally, the search for tightly connected substructures (i.e. clusters, communities of ports, économies-mondes) will focus on the emergence of world regions and regional integration processes. Finally, we will examine the co-evolution of maritime flows and urban/regional development and compare the growth trajectories of port and non-port cities based on their situation in the combined sea-land network.
In a multidisciplinary fashion, the project questions both the contribution and the resilience of port activities and shipping routes to the transformations of the world system and economy from the local level to the global level. It will provide novel results about world systems theory, network theory, and location theory. “
Debate between leaders of the cruise ship industry and port-cities
AIVP followed with much interest the work of the conference organised by the Cruise Europe association, which held a meeting for its members in Le Havre on 23, 24 and 25 April this year. More than one hundred delegates involved in the development of the cruise ship business in port-cities, from a score of countries in Northern and Western Europe, took part in the conference.The port-city as an economic adjustment variable?
The cruise operators represented among the speakers (Holland America Line, Celebrity, Carnival, AIDA…) testified to the good health of the cruise market in Northern and Western Europe, while stressing the difficulty of ensuring that the business remains profitable economically. The cost of fuel and port costs were mentioned to explain this apparently paradoxical situation. The direct and indirect costs associated with calls at European ports were once again vigorously denounced by the lines’ representatives. The question of the balance sought between passenger expectations of an attractive and comfortable programme of calls on the one hand, and the companies’ demand for maximum profitability on the other, is necessarily delicate. In the search for this financial balance, companies see the choice of the port-cities at which they call as an adjustment variable. These port-cities therefore have a strong incentive to offer conditions for ship calls which meet the companies’ strategic demands. For a start, every port-city must know how to negotiate a win-win partnership, while understanding that it is more and more difficult to make the most of the profits to be earned from their geographical situation in a context of strong competition between ports which are ever better equipped for cruise ship calls.
In search of authenticity
The structure of each cruise and, naturally, the question of the calls and the excursions available, were central issues in the debates. To reduce the variable costs of their operations, the companies look for new circuits which are linear rather than loops; passengers therefore embark and disembark at different ports. Moreover, slow steaming, already extensively used by cargo vessels, is an increasingly common practice among cruise ship operators. Steaming speeds at sea have been falling steadily for several years to save fuel. As a result of this, ports of call cannot be too far apart in order to optimise passage time, which is the least expensive for the operator and can generate the best profits for companies through consumption of the services offered on board. In the port of call, the companies are careful to ensure that the terminal is close to the city centre, and that good road infrastructure exists for day excursions. Failing that, the offer of launches (free of course!) by local players is naturally appreciated.
The quality of the excursions offered, the level of on-shore reception and the interest of each port of call contribute to the reputation and success of the cruise, and therefore of the company. For the cruise ship operator, novelty, authenticity and exclusivity are values which are sure to guarantee a satisfying “repeater” rate among passengers, who are also encouraged to recount their “experience” on the internet and social networks. For European cruises, this indirect marketing strategy is proving particularly successful.
It is hard to say who is winning this game in which port-cities and cruise ship companies try not to be first to blink. The strong market dynamic is sufficient to keep everybody happy for the moment: the companies who are permanently refining their economic model, the port-cities who are polishing their images and can expect substantial economic benefits, and finally the passengers, who every day are offered more, at more competitive prices. However the equilibrium is fragile and the importance of the role played by the industry’s professionals in each port of call should be stressed. In a few years, they have become essential points of contact for the companies and the first to encourage the formation of local “cruise clubs”. A great advantage of meetings like this is that it brings them together and allows them refine the strategies of their own port-cities.
Kengo Kuma: the Japanese architect builds culture into the old river port at Besançon (France)
The recently inaugurated “City of the Arts” at Besançon brings together the FRAC (Regional Fund for Contemporary Art), located in an old brick-built warehouse, with a new building housing the Music Conservatory. The public esplanade serves the whole ensemble, creating a link between city, art and the river.
Source : Kengo Kuma And Associates ; Le Moniteur
Shanghai : un 3e terminal passagers pour faire face à la croissance du trafic croisière
Malaga: “El Palmeral”, a development which reinforces port-city integration, wins an architecture award
Virtualisation of cruise terminal information systems in Venice
“Venezia Terminal Passageri” hopes that their investment will reduce considerably the risks associated with a breakdown in computer systems, which could potentially cause an interruption in services and a loss of data with disastrous consequences for the company.
Source: La Repubblica
Copenhague: inicio de las obras para la construcción del Centro Nacional de Arquitectura diseñado por Rem Koolhass
El Centro se implantará en el emplazamiento de una antigua cervecería donde también se prevén oficinas y viviendas. Dicho centro permitirá vincular el centro de la ciudad con el frente costero histórico y el barrio cultural de Slotsholmen.
Source : OMA ; Cyber Archi
Alotau in Papua-New Guinea preparing to receive cruise ship calls
The Port of Alotau will be restructured by PNG Ports Corporation Limited (PNGPCL) between now and October to enable it to receive the first cruise ships operated by Carnival Australia, one of the biggest operators in the Australian market. This will make it the biggest cruise ship port in the country.
Source: PNG Ports Corporation
Los Angeles: the port adopts a heritage action plan
The port of Los Angeles is to make an inventory of its historical, cultural and architectural resources. This evaluation will allow it to draw up an action plan and establish priorities for the preservation and, where possible, re-use of its heritage.
Source : Port of Los Angeles
Bayonne : un nouveau cinéma dans les anciens Docks
La ville de Bayonne a choisi l’Atelier architecture Randja pour la création d’une “maison du cinéma” au bord de l’Adour. Les deux salles existantes dans ces anciens entrepôts dédiés au négoce du vin seront restructurées et une nouvelle salle sera ajoutée.
Source : Ville de Bayonne
World Ports Sustainability Program (WPSP) launched in Antwerp, with AIVP among signatories to the official charter
At the initiative of the International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH), with which AIVP has signed a Memorandum of Understanding, the organisations ESPO, AAPA, PIANC and AIVP have actively committed to a collaborative programme for developing and stimulating actions to promote more sustainable strategies for ports’ activities, logistics chains and relations with the urban territory. On Thursday 22 March, Philippe Matthis, President of AIVP, will sign the formal declaration expressing the importance of city-port dialogue in the programme’s development.
Full article: WPSP
Brest port redevelopment: old oil slicks resurface
Full article: Les Echos
A record 9.2 million cruise passengers visited Spain in 2017
Full article: Eladelantado
The Kolkata Port Trust (KoPT) is working to develop heritage tourism by offering guided tours of ships and iconic sites
Full article: Thestatesman.com
Contrecoeur terminal in Montréal and federal public consultations
The Port of Montreal took part in public consultations by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) from 27 February to 1 March, to present the results of the environmental impact study. An open-day and two moderated public sessions were organised by the CEAA, allowing representatives from the Montreal Port Administration to meet citizens and the various interest groups, answer their questions and listen to their concerns.
New period of adhesion to the “Sector-based Sustainable Development Plan” for the Port of Barcelona
Full article :Cadenadesuministro
The bird reserve developed by the Port of Fremantle in Rous Head shows its effectiveness
Full article: Port of Fremantle
Singapore: building human capital to prepare for the future in port cities
Professional workers will also have to plan for the future by spending more time with teaching establishments to tell them about the varied, interesting and enriching careers which the industry can offer. Learning is a permanent, life-long process for employees and should be an integral part of a company’s culture. Moreover, companies will have to make themselves visible and attractive to talented young people who will be able to develop the digital world of the future.
Full article : The Straits Times
Canada: protection right whales and maritime transport in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Full Article : Sodes, Maritime Information Bureau
Tallinn Tech University signs an agreement with local authorities to help develop the shipbuilding industry in Saaremaa
Full article : Baltic Course
New Bedfort: the Mayor throws his support behind moves to make his city and its port the focal point for offshore wind in the USA
Full article: Governing
North Sea Port and industrial ecology: paper manufacturer Stora Enso acquires three wind turbines to improve its energy independence
Full article: North Sea Port
City, port, private stakeholders: the port city of Valparaiso adopts a united front to boost the cruise business
Full article: Puerto Valparaiso
Norway aiming for a fully electric ferry fleet by 2023, but without tax breaks the example will be difficult to reproduce
Full article: The Meditelegraph
To retain their status as international infrastructures serving the territory, the EU’s ports need to invest 48 billion euros in the next years.
This is the conclusion of a recent study by the ESPO, which consulted 73 European ports. Without support for this investment programme from the EU Commission, ports risk being unable to play a full part in policy on transport, the energy transition and environmental improvement.
France: the port city of Le Havre shortlisted as a future investment site for its Smart Port City project
Full article: Haropa Port
Rotterdam moving towards a sustainable circular industry
The Port of Rotterdam has signed a development agreement with a business consortium to study the creation of a modern waste-recycling plant. The initial investment is 9M€. The consortium will take its decision on final investment in the project, estimated at 200 million euros, at the year end.
Full article : Port of Rotterdam
Dominican Republic joins COCATRAM, a body which encourages port development to transform Central America into a logistics platform for the region
Full article : Actualidad Maritima y Portuaria
Mary Rose Burke, CEO of the Chamber of Commerce has given a talk entitled: Why we should not move the Dublin Port to make room for housing
Full article : Fora