Over fifty-five years after taking its first steps in 1961, the Symbiosis project remains a model of industrial ecology to this day. There are now 23 projects in the industrial-port complex of Kalundborg, based on the principle of a circular economy with industrial waste (water, slurry, smoke, etc.) processed and recycled for power generation or as a raw material for other industries.

Port of Kalundborg © World Conference AIVP 2012, Nantes – Saint-Nazaire