30 June 2016

San Antonio Port: Incentivising Port-City Integration through Citizen Participation

cs-18_sanantonio-paseobellamar1-vignette The Port of San Antonio, Chile’s first port by tonnage, aims not only to increase the volume of goods handled but also to ensure the development of human capital, essential criteria for ensuring competitiveness. The port also seeks to strengthen the link with the community and to promote the port city integration through citizen participation. The modification of the Urban Development Plan, in which the Port of San Antonio carried out an extensive participation program including a hundred meetings, is a perfect example.

Download: Case Study San Antonio

The City of San Antonio

Located in the Fifth Region of Chile, the city of San Antonio is framed by the Andes Mountain Range and the Pacific Ocean. More than 125,896 of Chile’s 16 million inhabitants live there.
San Antonio is 108 kilometres west of Santiago, the capital of Chile, and is linked to it by Ruta 78, known as the ‘Autopista del Sol’ (“Highway of the Sun”).
The port, the main activity of San Antonio, is situated within a natural bay, together with related industries and services. The city is also home to activity in the small-scale fishing, gastronomy, agriculture, viticulture and summer tourism sectors.

San Antonio Port

Chile has ten State-owned public ports. San Antonio is one of them. It handles 40% of the national cargo throughput.
In 2015, San Antonio Port maintained its position as fourth biggest contributor to the State, registering earnings of USD$18.6 million, an amount surpassed only by Codelco (mining), Enap (petroleum) and Banco Estado (finance).
It also maintained its position as most profitable public port, from amongst Chile’s ten public ports. 2015 saw it grow 7.7% on the previous year.

Moving more than 17 million tonnes in 2015, San Antonio Port is the biggest port in Chile in terms of cargo throughput, and the only one in Chile with three concessioned terminals – Puerto Central, San Antonio Terminal Internacional (STI) and Puerto Panul. In 2015 it maintained its position as the sixth port in Latin America in terms of container transport, according to the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC). It offers multipurpose services including container transport, bulk cargo and solid and liquid bulk operations.
Located on the West Coast of Latin America, San Antonio Port enjoys assets commending it to Chile’s foreign trade including its strategic location – it is the closest port to the country’s main production and consumption centres – excellent transport links, a cooperation agreement to strengthen rail connectivity, favourable topographical conditions and many areas available to project port infrastructure growth and integration.

The Port Today

Together with the growth of international trade with Chile in recent decades, the importance of San Antonio as a port has continued to grow. Port activity is the main driver of the local economy, and its direct and indirect contribution to local GDP is estimated to reach 50%.
In 2015, two of our three concessions made significant progress in their expansion plans. Puerto Central completed phase 1 of its 700 metres of new mooring stations on the Costanera Norte wharf. STI, meanwhile, is currently building an additional 130 metres of new mooring stations, bringing it to a total of 900 metres by 2018. Both investments total US$600 million and aim to duplicate transport capacity in San Antonio Port in the coming years.
In terms of productivity, 2015 saw the Puerto Central and STI concessions acquire new cranes. Two of these, on the STI concession, are the biggest in operation in Latin America. This type of investment, together with the increased moorings and hinterland spaces at the heart of the concessions’ development plans, are fundamental to ensuring the highest standards of service and competitiveness in terms of costs.

San Antonio Port has taken care to work together with the concessions, syndicates and port workers to address issues of common concern through dialogue, consensus and agreement. The company, moreover, coordinates a Joint Committee made up on concessions, syndicates and workers. The results from the period are pleasing: an accident rate below the industry average and no serious accidents.

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The Future Port

Between July and August 2015, San Antonio Port carried out a survey of 400 local residents, over the age of 15, in order to learn about the community’s perception on maritime activity. A high percentage of respondents said they knew about the expansion project known as “Megapuerto”, “Puerto Gran Escala” or “PGE”, and had a positive view of it.
The project plans new port infrastructure for the southern part of the current site. This will be carried out phase by phase in line with increasing demand, and shall have a capacity of 6 million TEU’s per year, in addition to the port’s current capacity.

During 2015, San Antonio Port progressed various studies for this expansion project. It ordered studies in basic engineering and the environmental baseline, as well as other studies to define the business model for new port infrastructure and the pre-feasibility study to implement a multimodal cargo corridor to connect the port with Santiago. In the first trimester of 2016, San Antonio Port bid for the drawing up of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the corresponding “Resolución de Calificación Ambiental (RCA)” (a Resolution of Environmental Approval issued by the Chilean Environmental Evaluation Service) is expected in 2017.

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Participation as a Tool to Encourage Port-City Integration

Growing community participation, through various means, in port operations, initiatives and projects has represented one of the main methods of increasing port-city integration in San Antonio in recent years.
One of the main milestones in this area was the approval of the modification of the Municipal Development Plan of San Antonio in May 2014. This plan establishes the sectors necessary for the future development of the port and sets aside spaces for the development of the city. The modification of the Municipal Development Plan included an extensive process of Early Citizens’ Participation, involving more than 100 meetings with local residents, local and regional authorities and other interest groups. These types of events are fundamental for the achievement of a balanced and coordinated development between port and city.

San Antonio Port has, therefore, made two commitments that seek to create spaces for the community that contribute to the integral development of the community and improves the quality of life for all its inhabitants. These two initiatives are as follows:

  • The modernisation of the northern sector for tourism, culture and urban recreation activities through the extension of the Paseo Bellamar coastal walkway and the construction of the new San Antonio office building, the first floor of which will have a boardroom open to the community.
  • The development of a nature reserve in the Mouth of the River Maipo. This will allow for tourism, recreational activities and bird watching, among other things, adding value to this important space that has been designated a site of international importance in the conservation of migratory shore birds.

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In 2015, a series of meetings with authorities, neighbourhood associations and small-scale fishing unions took place with respect to the dredging project that began in October.
Between 2012 and 2015, on a consistent and regular basis, meetings have taken place at least twice a week with local actors to foster this relationship. The company also keeps up constant communication with the local community through its “open doors” policy.

Port Participation in Community Life

The contribution to the San Antonio borough (which includes, among other localities, the city of San Antonio, Santo Domingo and Cartagena) is based around four main themes: culture, education, community and sport.
San Antonio Port manages the Paseo Bellamar walkway, the public space most highly valued by the local community. It also participates, actively and constantly, in the San Antonio Cultural Centre, through an agreement with the San Antonio Municipality. It works, in addition, with the San Antonio Unido sports club and actively participates in various educational projects related to port activity in the area.

Creating Public Spaces and the Using the Waterfront

One of the most sensitive issues in the relationship between ports and cities around the world is the use of the waterfront and the availability of waterfront public spaces for people to use.
Ever since 2006, San Antonio Port has managed the Paseo Bellamar, after having financed 90% of the modernisation of that waterfront public facility in early 2003. Paseo Bellamar is an open space for all the community, with 52 artisanal stalls, two cafes and snack bars.

Last year’s survey found that this initiative is highly valued by the people of San Antonio: more than half of those surveyed considered Paseo Bellamar to be “the most symbolic” part of San Antonio, and a high percentage said the redevelopment of Paseo Bellamar was the best change to the city in recent times.
The community’s response demonstrates the importance of preserving and encouraging public spaces that allow citizens to remain in direct contact with the waterfront. These spaces are the foremost interaction points between port and city.

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Creating a Common Vision

Without doubt, participation initiatives have contributed to greater integration between port and city, and the creation of common view of the future development of San Antonio. “What this Municipal Development Plan has achieved is this port-city vision. We understand that the city sustains the port, and the port sustains the city, in a harmonious, sustainable and, of course, balanced atmosphere,” declared the Mayor of San Antonio, Omar Vera, in a speech at the XXIV Latin American Ports Congress, which took place in Arica in December of last year.
Moreover, more than half of those who participated in last year’s survey stated that the port and activities related to it are what drive development in the city. A significant percentage classed the port’s commitment to the city as “positive”.

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There is, however, room for improvement in several areas where port-city integration in San Antonio needs to be deepened, such as public health, technical education, urban transport, public spaces and green areas. Due to their nature, the port cannot approach these challenges unilaterally. Rather they require cooperation, dialogue and agreement between authorities, social organisations, the private sector and the community.

“The experience we have gained in recent years has demonstrated the value created by participation, in a transparent and mutually respectful atmosphere, between the various players. We are sure that this is the path to follow in the deepening of port-city integration in the coming decades” said Signorelli, General Manager of San Antonio Port.

Carlos Mondaca Matzner
Jefe Asuntos Públicos,
Empresa portuaria San Antonio

Is member of AIVP : Empresa Portuaria San Antonio

Download: Case Study San Antonio

4 April 2016

Pasaia: A redefinition of city and port spaces

cs_puertodepasaia_01_vignetteIn September 2015 the Port Council of Pasaia gave the green light for the Special Plan for the regeneration of Pasaia Bay. This is no doubt the result of a decision taken as part of the 2015-2025 Strategic Plan for the port to defer the construction of an outer port. The particular configuration of the port of Pasaia inside the bay and its close proximity to different administrative districts and residential areas required a redefinition of port and urban uses in this territory in order to preserve the port’s competitiveness and its future.

Download: Case Study Pasaia

cs_puertodepasaia_01In September 2015 the Port Council of Pasaia gave the green light for the Special Plan for the regeneration of Pasaia Bay. Apart from the port authority, the Council includes representatives of the Province, the Basque Government and the municipalities involved. This is no doubt the result of a decision taken as part of the 2015-2025 Strategic Plan for the port to defer the construction of an outer port on the Atlantic coast. The particular configuration of the port of Pasaia inside the bay and its close proximity to different administrative districts and residential areas required a redefinition of port and urban uses in this territory in order to preserve the port’s competitiveness and its future. The green light for this plan only affects a part of the territory, but it should probably be seen as the first stage of a more general redefinition of port-city relations and the overall regeneration of the bay.

Interview with César SALVADOR ARTOLA, of the Port of Pasaia (Pasajes).

AIVP – Can you summarise the reasons for your decision to defer the construction of the outer port and explain whether this is the only motivation for adopting this new Special Plan for the port?

cs_puertodepasaia_02 César Salvador Artola – The project for the outer port was based on four premises:
a)   Continued traffic growth at a rate of 5% per year. You must remember that planning for the project started long before the economic crisis, when we had experienced fifteen years of uninterrupted traffic growth and episodes of congestion in Pasaia.
b)    The need for a power plant in Gipuzkoa, the inappropriateness of the current location in the inner port and the lack of alternative locations in the Territory: a new coal-fired plant in the outer port was an obvious solution.
c)    Access to funding: the fact that Public Administration Bodies (the Port Authority) can take out loans; access to subsidies; income from the sale of land in the inner port.
d)    High demand for land for residential and third party use, allowing the inner port to be transformed rapidly into a new city.

These four premises have collapsed with the economic crisis. The “new normality” facing us today is not a return to pre-crisis euphoria: the thermo-electric plant has closed and no replacement is expected; one of the port’s main clients, a steelworks, closed because of the crisis, and local towns have opted for a policy of internal transformation, which means they are not acquiring new land.
Having said that, it is obvious that the decision not to build the new port was the reason for reviewing the Special Plan.

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AIVP – The new redevelopment plan concentrates on the Trintxerpe – San Pedro – La Herrera sector. What actions are programmed and in what time-frame?

César Salvador – The Special Plan coordinates actions in all port areas, within a time-frame which coincides with the 2015-2025 Strategic Plan. Many of the planned actions in areas set aside for cargo handling are important from the angle of our co-existence with the city, since they have an environmental impact. But the boundary developments which will have the greatest significance from the point of view of urban transformation are concentrated in the La Herrera-Fishing Port Zone, and these are programmed for the first four-year period.

cs_puertodepasaia_05In the first place, there is a plan for a big pedestrian walkway and cycle lane, with wide green spaces, from La Herrera to the Fishing Port, which will solve the whole line of contact between the city and the port. Two significant elements of this action are the construction of an underground car-park and the development of a promenade area along the waterfront.
Secondly, the warehouse area at La Herrera will be transformed; this will allow the strip located immediately behind the line of contact with the city to be used by modern marine industries to install added-value economic activities.
Finally the port warehouses at La Herrera will gradually be replaced (this process may take longer than the first four-year period) by new warehouses, some with paved roofs to make best use of the height difference between the urban area and the port in this southern zone.

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AIVP – What will be the impacts on existing port activities: reduction in space used, changes in types of activity, relocation? And what do you think are the port activities and spaces which should be maintained or developed? What alternatives were suggested in discussions with your partners on the Port Council?

César Salvador – If we compare the volume and types of traffic in the port’s record year, 2003, with the predictions of the 2015-2025 Strategic Plan, we find a big fall in scrap (from 2.3 to 0.5 million tons); coal has practically disappeared and new traffics have appeared such as containers, bulk liquids and potash. Steel goods and cars have remained constant; they have been and will remain the backbone of the port’s business.

The work of reviewing the Special Plan has not consisted in displacing port activity to make room for urban uses, but in preparing the commercial wharves for the new traffic mix expected, taking into account the environment and co-existence with our surroundings. If we continue with our comparison with 2003, we have gone from a port which moved 6 million tons, half of which was bulk cargoes handled in the open, to one with a volume of 5.5 million tons in which bulk cargoes, the weight of which has fallen considerably, are handled in closed installations while new traffics such as containers have appeared.

The review of the Special Plan does not displace port activity; it is our way of adapting to changes in demand.
The best alternatives for the review of the Special Plan start from the need to handle 5.5 million tons sustainably. That is why there are no major differences between them in terms of the total space occupied for urban use on the one hand and port use on the other. The difference lies mainly in the internal distribution of port uses, and we are choosing the option which will allow us to meet the demand with the highest level of compatibility with the environment.
Different traffic scenarios were considered in preparing the Strategic Plan, and it is obvious that if the most pessimistic scenario had been adopted the port would have needed less space, and more space would theoretically have been available for the city. The problem is that under this hypothesis the future of the port would have been in doubt, since there is a viability threshold, of around four million tons, below which the survival of the companies which provide port services (stevedoring, tugs, pilots) comes into question.

We must also remember that the demand for space for urban use and the investment capability of Public Administration Bodies are not what they were in the years before the crisis. A port with a smaller capacity than has been defined as the objective in the Strategic Plan would have compromised the competitiveness of the industries in our hinterland; it would have threatened the future of port companies and created a vacuum that the city would be unable to fill.

AIVP – How will the new distribution of port and urban uses improve the mixture of port and urban functions in these areas?

César Salvador – The review of the Plan exploits a whole range of formulas for generating mixed-use zones, from making the roofs of port buildings available for citizen use, for example the fishing sector and the warehouses at La Herrera Sur, to time-sharing arrangements as in the fishing wharves or the parking area in that sector, which allows citizen use to expand or contract according to the seasonal rhythms of the fishing industry. Mixed use could also be considered for economic activities in La Herrera, as it is more accessible from the city and would bring renewed vitality to commercial and hotel businesses.

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AIVP – Your 2015-2025 Strategic Plan aims to develop cruise ship traffic and large pleasure craft. What is your action plan for this aspect of the plan and how will the necessary infrastructure be integrated into the urban space?

César Salvador – We are working very closely with the competent tourism authorities, adapting our supply to their strategy. Their main axes for growth are: capturing tourists with high acquisitive power; non-seasonal tourism; and promoting the province of Gipuzkoa outside the capital, Donostia-San Sebastian.
Theme cruises and luxury vessels, which fit in with this strategy, do not require a specific space in the port, either because of their volume or because of the type of experience they offer their passengers.

Having said that, it is obvious that the port in 2020, with less bulk cargo open to view and high quality public spaces along the water’s edge, and with hotel services which match the high standards of Guipuzkoan food, is an even more attractive port for cruise ship passengers than the port in 2017 – when we already have eight cruise ships confirmed, attracted by our environment, the dramatic landscape of the entrance channel overhung by cliffs and the traditional fabric of the historic city centres of Pasai San Pedro and Pasai Donibane.

AIVP – This plan can be seen as the first stage in the regeneration of the whole bay. Looking at the longer term, have you already planned, or at least studied, actions and solutions to improve the way this stage complements urban and residential areas close to other parts of the bay where there are port activities? For example the cargo activities near Donibane and Antxo, or the ro-ro terminal close to Lezo, etc.?

César Salvador – Yes, under the Special Plan we will be able to construct a ring-road round the centre of Lezo, in the eastern sector of the port. But there is no date set for this so far in the plans of the Gipuzkoa local government, which is responsible for roads. This action will divert the traffic which currently goes through the town centre, separating it from the port; it will improve the availability of cycle lanes and allow construction of a public space above the port.
In the Antxo area the railway forms a major barrier between the town and the port, so it is difficult to envisage significant changes; in any case these would not be part of the Special Plan for the port, but actions in the spaces closest to the town which are currently occupied by the railway lines.
In the Donibane area the transition from port to city is more or less resolved, with a zone for leisure boats, a park and a sports and cultural centre already completed.

AIVP, March 2016

Download: Case Study Pasaia


19 January 2016

Oslo, a new step for the city – port relationship

CS_Oslo_dd_01_vignetteThe work undertaken in 2005 on the Tjuvholmen sector marked the real starting point of the “Fjord City” project. The developments have been completed in 2014 across Tjuvholmen and redevelopment work has been also largely completed for the Bjorvika sector and its iconic Opera House.
For now, the two remaining sectors – Vippetangen and Filipstad – are still mainly given over to port activity. The situation is set to evolve quickly, however, particularly in the case of Filipstad. So it’s a good time to take stock with Vidar Fiskum, Project Manager – Department of Urban Development, Oslo Port Autorithy.

Download: Case Study Oslo

While the mechanics workshops and shipyard in the Aker Brygge sector were converted for new purposes in the 1980s, the real change in the Oslo waterfront began following discussions between the Port and City in the mid 1990s, and the inclusion in the national transport plan adopted in 2004 of the port’s strategic plan for 2003-2011. The main orientations adopted were involving:

  • ferry and cruise activity remaining in the heart of the city;
  • port activities being relocated (particularly one of the container terminals) close to the city centre and concentrated in the SouthPort zone;
  • some 50 hectares of the land freed up as a result, being earmarked for urban use;
  • reinvesting proceeds from the sale of port land in efforts to transform the port and its new projects.

The Tjuvholmen sector is being used as a pilot, and work undertaken in 2005 will mark the starting point of the “Fjord City” project and the operations planned for the various sectors identified along the fjord.


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The developments completed in 2014 across Tjuvholmen’s 51 hectares have earned a Global Award for Excellence from the Urban Land Institute. The Bjorvika sector, where redevelopment work has been largely completed, is now internationally identified as a cultural district, home to the iconic Opera House designed by Snohetta, along with the Museum of Modern Art designed by Renzo Piano at Tjuvholmen. In 2018, the Munch Museum designed by Herreros Arquitectos is expected to open its doors, next to the Opera House.
For now, the two remaining sectors – Vippetangen and Filipstad – are still mainly given over to port activity. The situation is set to evolve quickly, however, particularly in the case of Filipstad. So it’s a good time to take stock with Vidar Fiskum, Project Manager – Department of Urban Development, Oslo Port Autorithy.

AIVP Vippetangen is currently home to significant port activities including, in particular, grain silos, cruise quays and an international ferry terminal. What are the main orientations planned for this sector? Based on what timeframe?

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CS_Oslo_dd_001Vidar Fiskum In the future, only the ferry terminal and the cruise quays still will be located at Vippetangen. The new Harbour Promenade will link the passenger facilities directly to the city centre and the new developing areas around our new Opera House, which is extremely popular amongst our tourists and inhabitants of Oslo in general. At Vippetangen, there will additionally be built new public attractions, commercial spaces, restaurants and shops.
Though it is important for us, that Vippetangen maintains a rough and “harbouresque” impression; different from the glossier development areas in Bjørvika and Tjuvholmen. We struggle to keep a differentness between our developing areas, and to make every new district to grow its own soul.

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AIVP The container terminal at Filipstad has been relocated and developments should start soon in the sector. There is currently a ferry terminal there, and there are plans for a cruise terminal to handle increasing passenger traffic: the strategic plan for the period leading up to 2030 estimates that passenger numbers passing through Oslo will rise by 40%.
What solutions do you intend to adopt in order to ensure a proper mix with the urban developments planned for the sector, in terms of the environment, security and opening up the site to the local population? 

Vidar Fiskum – In fact, the container terminal at Filipstad was relocated to the South Port 10 years ago, now Filipstad is filled with all other types of cargo. As Oslo is growing rapidly, so is also the port activity and every square meter are filled with some kind of port activity. In order to the rising passenger numbers in Oslo, we expect public transport by boat to take main parts of the growth. We will build new quays for public transport, closely to hubs at land, to provide an easy flow between water and land based transport systems. We also expect some growth in international passenger transport, and are preparing our quays to accommodate larger ships.
Additional to improving our infrastructure, we are building our public relations by arranging the annual happening “By the Quay” (Havnelangs) every first Sunday of June. At Havnelangs we, our customers and clients, are exhibiting the broad amount of activities and services provided to the city by the port.


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AIVP – Will other port facilities also be maintained at the site, and if so, what solutions will be put in place to ensure compatibility between urban and port uses?

Vidar Fiskum – In the city centre, we only want passenger related transport or harbour activity that not requires ISPS. At our ferry terminals, there will be permanent ISPS-facilities in due to our all year around ferry services. At our cruise quays, mainly used during the summer, there are not at the same level demand of permanent ISPS-facilities. So it is important for us to open these quays up for public use, when we have no visiting cruise ship at quay.
The fact that we open our quay the minute the cruise ship leaves, we believe are the main argument to still be able to provide a cruise destination right in the heart of our city centre.

AIVP – Filipstad has a strong maritime and port identity. Will that identity be preserved, and if so how? For example, was the sector included in your port heritage plan?

Vidar Fiskum – As mentioned earlier, every new district needs to grow its own soul to be a valuable and popular supplement to the city web. To ease the breed of the areas soul, we preserve some of the existent harbour buildings and cranes. We have done a thorough job of preparing our heritage plan, and now it is easy for us to pin point the buildings and elements we need to preserve for the future.
Despite years of different port activity at Filipstad, there are not many traces of the port activity left, other than the quay itself, that was constructed in the 18 hundreds. Our heritage plan is mentioning these quays, and we will also preserve parts of a coffee roster building at site, that was built in the 1950’s. There are also a discussion with the planning office of preserving an office building built in the 1960’s, where we want to keep most of our port history at site and the planning office wants to demolish the building to make room for a broader street through the new district.
But additionally to these buildings, we want to preserve former common “Oslo-cranes” at Filipstad, that was built in hundreds and placed along all quays if Oslo. Now there are only three left, located at Filipstad.

AIVP – As the biggest landowner in Filipstad, the Port of Oslo has unveiled its own development programme for the zone. Is this programme an alternative to the other proposals put forward, in particular that of the City of Oslo’s Planning and Building Service?
Could you briefly outline the main lines of your programme, and explain how it differs from the City of Oslo’s plans? And how are you working with the City of Oslo to adjust viewpoints?

Vidar Fiskum – We have a good dialogue with the planning office, and there has been an agreement to make separate proposals for Filipstad, that we think are strengthening the democracy and decisional process at the city hall. It is healthy for our democratic system, that the politicians have different proposals to decide from.
The planning strategies are quite similar; a modern and efficient ferry terminal are located in the western part of Filipstad, the CBD of Oslo expands into the eastern area, and the areas between the CBD and terminal are mainly prepared for residential areas.
However, we think it is possible to build a good new neighbourhood without having to change the main layout of the highway through the area. Where the planning office wants to put the highway under the ground and sea-level in an extremely costly tunnel, we want to build a row of office buildings to reduce the impact of noise in the city areas.

AIVP – What conclusions have you drawn from the now completed development work on other parts of the waterfront, and how will the plans for Filipstad complement what has already been achieved at Tjuvholmen or Bjorvika? To take one example, iconic buildings such as the Opera House mentioned earlier have already been created in other waterfront sectors. Are others needed in Filipstad?

Vidar Fiskum – We have noticed that the waterfront are highly popular especially during the brief Norwegian summertime. There are a high demand for parks, beaches and water sports in the former harbour areas. At Filipstad, we will build a new large city park, and the largest beach and sea water pools, to make sure we have enough capacity and space for recreational activity during summer time.

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It is important for us to ensure that the areas we leave behind, as the port activity moves out, is of high urban and architectural quality, which is to benefit of the population, and that gives us a good reputation and legacy.
When we speak about landmarks, at Filipstad we want to build a high rise iconic building that marks the western boundary of the city centre. What this building will look like, will be decided by an architectural competition to come.

AIVP – Finally, Norway has announced it aims to cut its CO2 emissions by 50% by 2030, and the country hopes to be carbon neutral by 2050. The City of Oslo itself has strong environmental ambitions. What practical measures do you intend to take – notably in the Filipstad zone – to respond to the challenge of climate change, whether in terms of carbon footprints, or the risk of floods and rising sea levels?

Vidar Fiskum – We will try to reduce the amount of transport made by cars, by offer only a limited amount of parking space, and link the new urban areas into Oslo’s rapidly growing public transport network. The streets of Filipstad will be designed with focus on bikes and pedestrians.
We also have made a Quality Plan for Filipstad, that pin points focus areas to reduce environmental impact, such as pollution from the building phase, low energy demands in the heating season, none carbon use heating systems, etc.
In due to the rising sea levels, new measurements are predicting that the land uplift, ongoing since the last ice age, in northern Scandinavia more or less will follow the rising sea levels. At the moment we just are building new buildings at a ground level that prohibits damage from a 100 years flood.

AIVP, January 2016

Download: Case Study Oslo

Is a member of AIVP:
OSLO PORT AUTHORITY: http://www.ohv.oslo.no

6 March 2015

Cape Town: forging a new relationship between city and port

CS_CapeTown03_AIVP-DD_215_BThe redevelopment of Cape Town’s Victoria & Alfred waterfront is one of those well-known examples frequently mentioned in port-city literature, in the same way as Sydney’s Darling or the Inner Harbour in Baltimore. It is an ambitious project, aimed at giving the port greater visibility and highlighting the site as a valuable asset: a working waterfront where urban functions co-exist side by side with ship repair activities, recreational boating and fishing. The project entered a new phase in October 2013 with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the City and Port, as participants in the Post Conference organised by AIVP in Cape Town in November 2014 will be aware.

Download: Casestudy CapeTown

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, a new living space

Towards the end of the 1980s, a decision was taken to redevelop a 123 hectare site around the Victoria and Alfred dock basins, the historic port being underused since most of the commercial port activities had been relocated to the Duncan and Ben Schoeman basins further east. The authorities were keen not just to develop a mixture of facilities at the heart of the city, but also to preserve the location’s maritime heritage and authentic character. By keeping certain port activities there, that dual objective could be satisfied while also meeting the needs of the port and a section of its users.  Historic Port © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront ; © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront

In 2006, Transnet, the national body responsible for running South Africa’s ports, decided to refocus on its core business and sell the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront to Dubai World and a group called London & Regional Properties. Since March 2011, the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront has been back in South African ownership, having been bought by Growthpoint, the largest real estate group in South Africa, and the government pension fund Public Investment Corporation. Although the project was an essentially private operation, considerable importance was initially accorded to the public spaces, with the strategic message “the spaces are more important than the buildings themselves” coming to represent something of a slogan. Victoria & Alfred Waterfront © AIVP

Over 23 years later, some 17,500 people are now employed at the working waterfront where ship repair activities, a few naval vessels, a fleet of fishing vessels and yachts of all sizes co-exist alongside 450 shops, 80 restaurants and cafés, nearly 200 offices, 11 hotels with 1500 rooms, 570 apartments, and leisure amenities such as the maritime museum and aquarium. This mix of activities was identified as a priority right from the initial design stage, and remains the distinctive hallmark of this exemplary project.

A host of sporting and cultural events are also held at the site, most recently in 2014 with the Cape Town World Design Capital and a stage of the Volvo Ocean Race in November. Volvo Ocean Race, Cape Town © AIVP ; Land uses © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront

According to the latest figures from V&A Waterfront Ltd, it is also South Africa’s most popular destination with 23 million visitors annually (55% of them residents of Cape Town and the surrounding region). The waterfront has contributed over 15 billion euros to South Africa’s GDP over the last decade (2002-2012), while its impact on the local and regional economy over the same period has been equally striking: over 62% of spending by tourists visiting the Western Cape region in 2011 was in Cape Town itself; real estate prices have risen by 23% within a radius of 1.5 km, etc. By 2023, estimates for new developments suggest a contribution of 2.1 billion euros to GDP with 16,000 additional direct jobs created. Heritage © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront

The initial commitment to preserving local heritage and building on the location’s distinctive character resulted in over twenty emblematic sites being renovated, some of them over a hundred years old. The latest example is the Watershed, a former warehouse converted by Wolff Architects into a craft market and an exhibition hall, which the Post Conference delegates were able to visit shortly after its inauguration. Watershed before © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront ; Watershed area © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront ; Watershed after © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront ; Watershed after © Victoria & Alfred Waterfront ; Watershed after © Aivp

The current project for the area around the grain silo, which had not been used since 1990, is particularly symbolic of the strategy focused on preserving the site’s specific character: both in terms of the building itself, a listed heritage site seen as an iconic part of the Cape Town skyline, and also the decision to locate the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa at the site, channelling the African identity to promote the project’s adoption by the local population and future visitors.  Silo area © AIVP

The museum’s 9500 m2 will be spread across nine floors around a central hall inspired by the shape of a coffee bean and dug into part of the silo’s 42 bays. In addition to the exhibition areas, the Heatherwick Studio project also includes educational areas, a bookshop, restaurant, bar, roof sculpture garden, etc. It is due to open in 2016. Silo project © Heatherwick Studio

In this same silo/clock tower area, a number of buildings, mainly offices but also apartments and a 225 room hotel, either have been completed or are due for completion by 2016-2017.  The silo: work in progress and completed buildings © AIVP

However, it is in the nearby area that the relationship between the City and the Port of Cape Town is truly set to be revolutionised in the next few years, with the Port Gateway Precinct project.

The Port Gateway Precinct project: renewed dialogue…

Owing to the diverse range of stakeholders concerned and the various decision-making levels involved – national for the port itself operated by Transnet Ltd, regional with the Western Cape Government and Province, and local with the City – there have been strategic differences and the process has not always been a smooth one. The Memorandum of Understanding signed in autumn 2013 between Transnet and Mayor of Cape Town, Patricia de Lille, reflected a clear commitment to identifying a shared vision, with the formal creation of a dedicated forum for dialogue (Executive Liaison Structure and Technical Meetings). The ELS will be able to rely on the Strategic Planning Forum, an existing body that brings together Transnet, the City and Province of Western Cape, and which aims to establish priority projects and strategies for their realisation.

For the City, this aim is based on an economic development strategy in which the Port has a key part to play. While Cape Town has experienced only modest export growth in recent years, 2013 saw a sharp acceleration with growth of 13%. Most of these exports pass through the port. Rapid population growth in the city and rising prosperity suggest that imports are also likely to grow in the future. A redeveloped, efficient port is therefore an important component of the city’s economic positioning as the gateway to the African market. The Mayor of Cape Town’s renewed backing for the development of a cruise terminal at berth E close to the silo/clock tower area – currently being regenerated itself – is another measure intended to support the growth of tourism in the city and its expected impact.

… promoting the port’s development

Of those operated by Transnet, Cape Town is not seen as the country’s priority port, but in terms of container traffic with some 708,604 TEUs over the period 2012/2013, it is nonetheless South Africa’s second busiest port behind Durban. Thanks to its strategic location, it enjoys global links and handled over 2 MT of non-container goods traffic over the same period. The port currently has infrastructures dedicated to non-container goods that should enable it to absorb growth in this sector in the short-term. However, it is faced with increasing road access issues. These are being addressed by Transnet’s commitment to developing rail infrastructures, and also by moves to reconfigure the links between the interface areas between the Port and City (particularly the CBD) and the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront. Aerial view © Transnet

The Duncan Dock is currently used for multi-purpose activities including bulk handling, fishing, boating and ship repair, while the Ben Schoeman Dock is mainly dedicated to containers. Its onshore capacities are limited, however, and a number of possible solutions are already being considered to enable it to handle the increasing volume of container traffic who could reach the 25 MT within thirty years (+ 150%). Initially, the Culemborg and Salt River rail yards could be reconfigured to develop an onshore staging area. It could possibly then be extended to the north in the medium-term.

Relocating the yacht marina closer to the Silo/Clock Tower area and the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront will also free up space for port activities. Another complementary option would be to re-use the empty spaces beneath the motorway. Relocating the yacht marina © TransnetDevelopment and new links between the port and Culemborg © Transnet ; Port: currently  et  and Medium Term © Transnet

… and improved integration

The Port Gateway Precinct project also reflects the desire to integrate the port and the city more effectively.  Port Gateway Precinct Study area © City of Cape Town ; Aerial view © Transnet

The Port Gateway project site opens up the possibility of alternatives to the overused and congested road that is currently the main means of accessing the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront and the port. The project will allow new connections between the city, port and waterfront for vehicles and pedestrians, whilst also creating visual links.

During the initial phase (0 to 5 years), the project will involve the development of a cruise terminal at berth E and the spaces around it, as well as vacant spaces along the nearby Duncan Road. Urban amenities and installations (light industries, retail, etc.) will also be created to ensure year-round activity outside the cruise season. Meanwhile, a new road link and an extension to the existing network will provide new points of access to the site. Phase 1 © City of Cape Town

During the second phase (5-10 years), the extension of the Roggebai canal will serve to create a new public space. It will also form the boundary with the cruise terminal at berth E and the port activities at berth F. Relocating these activities to Culemborg and other sectors will then free up space for new urban developments along Duncan Road, and allow the creation of new pedestrian links and public spaces

Phases 3 and 4 will confirm this urban-oriented development approach:

  • Customs House and warehouses I and J will be converted for use by light industries and shops (3rd phase, 10-20 years);
  • Berths B, C and D will be converted for offices, hotels, restaurants, etc. (4th phase: 20-50 years)

In Cape Town as in many other port cities, the success of this ambitious project, the future of the port itself and its successful integration with the city, are once again dependent on the quality of dialogue between the various stakeholders. A first step has been taken in this direction with the signing of the MOU, which has opened up the possibility of an integrated, joint approach to planning. The next few years are set to prove highly interesting, as the solutions identified are gradually brought to fruition.

AIVP, February 2015

Member of AIVP :

Transnet National Port Authority : http://www.transnet.net

Download: Casestudy CapeTown

24 October 2014

Zorrotzaurre, a new driving force in the development of Greater Bilbao

CS-Bilbao_0_Zorrotzaurre2008-copyrightAyuntamiento de BilbaoThe Zorrotzaurre project represents the opportunity for Bilbao to bring continuity to the transformation of obsolete areas of the old industrial city, extending urban restoration downriver, to the border of the municipality. Zorrotzaurre will offer citizens a new mixed-use zone of high quality and will extend to the totality of the citizens the enjoyment of the riverbanks along the entire course of the river as it flows through Greater Bilbao.

Interview with Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN, Mayor of Bilbao

Download: Case Study Bilbao

AIVP – The special plan for the 84 hectares of the old industrial and port area of Zorrotzaurre, at the heart of Bilbao, was adopted in November 2012 based on a master plan put together by Zaha Hadid.  Plan Especial

Work began on the opening up of the Deusto canal on May 14th, which will turn the Zorrotzaurre peninsular into an island. One of its aims is to respond to the risk of flooding. What has led you to make that choice? Were other options investigated such as, for example, the creation of public spaces serving as buffer zones during episodes of flooding and, the rest of the time, as promenades and recreational areas?  Opening up of the Deusto canal

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN, Maire de Bilbao – Bilbao is located on the north side of the Cornisa Cantábrica. One of its orographic characteristics is the formation of “short” hydrological basins which give way to deep valleys. So the river that runs through Bilbao, the river Nervión, is more than 70km long, the last 15km of which separate our city from the estuary to the sea and are affected by tides. Furthermore, in our municipal territory, land areas are small and occupied by historical urban development. Around Zorrotzaurre, 800m long on the left and 8000m long on the right, land altitude varies between 0 and 100m.

All this means that there are no better alternatives for improving the hydraulics of the river and to prevent new episodes of flooding than opening up the canal, which also leads to more “attractive” new spaces and to the gaining of new “waterfronts”.   Zorrotzaurre, 2008

 AIVP – How have the island nature of Zorrotzaurre and the presence of water been exploited?How have the island nature of Zorrotzaurre and the presence of water been exploited?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – The urban plan of Zorrotzaurre aims to create new open spaces and new facilities on the two “bows” of the island, and both riverbanks are to feature “linear parks” alongside the new canal, lending continuity to the areas already redeveloped, from the city centre along the river. Open spaces

New Deusto Bridge, plan ; New Deusto bridge ; Connexions

AIVP – At the same time as the digging of the new canal, building has begun on the construction of a bridge linking the future island to the Deusto area. Three bridges are planned, guaranteeing the connection of Zorrotzaurre with neighbouring areas. These include a bridge linking the future island to the area of San Ignacio, an area which was also home to port-related activities and riverside warehouses. Are you planning to continue port and logistical activities linked, for example, to the urban distribution of goods by river in Zorrotzaurre and/or San Ignacio?
What is envisaged for that area and what synergies are programmed between it and Zorrotzaurre?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN The plan of port use, approved by the competent authority in the field (the Port of Bilbao) decided against, for its own operative and functional reasons, the continuance of any kind of activity along the river valley, in both Zorrotzaurre and San Ignacio. The Port of Bilbao has decided against continuing goods transport, so such activities have stopped, fundamentally for reasons of functionality: lack of land installations, difficult mobility from sea to land, limitations to navigability imposed by the tides, the effect of which is felt up to the Old Town, and the added challenge presented by the series of bridges linking the two banks.

The urban planning that has taken place in both areas does not, therefore, contemplate those types of uses, having focussed instead on: economic activities (state-of-the-art production facilities and tertiary activities), residential areas and facilities.

AIVP – Zorrotzaurre has a strongly industrial and port-based identity and history. How has this past been recognised and integrated into the project? What criteria are used to decide whether to preserve such sites?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – Zorrotzaurre has represented two very different perspectives for the city:

  • On the one hand, the legacy of greatest historical import that is left by the riverbank of the original course of the river, occupied by an ensemble of buildings mixing residential buildings with buildings linked to industrial activities, which is what has truly characterized this perspective.
  • On the other is the legacy of the “canal”, with only 50 years of history, which has been perceived by the area’s residents as an “aggression” upon the territory and the natural continuity of Deusto and San Ignacio up to the edge of the river. Let’s not forget that the port, because of its functionality, has become a closed and impregnable area to its closest urban surroundings. an industrial history

With respect to the first of these perspectives, the Urban Plan of Zorrotzaurre has proposed the total preservation of previously existing residential buildings, forming the « façade » of Zorrotzaurre to the river. This preserves the original nucleus surrounding the church and square. On the other hand, the preservation and restoration of a series of buildings of industrial character has also been proposed, adapting their previous uses, in some cases to be used for public or private facilities and, in other cases, for uses relating to new economic activities.

With regard to the second of the two perspectives (the one about the canal, with its recent port history), the urban proposal of Zorrotzaurre aims to return Deusto and San Ignacio to their citizens, with a new double riverbank which arises from the definitive opening of the canal, converting them into riverbank pathways, allowing a link to be established, without a break in continuity, towards the heart of the city, the Old or Historic Quarters.
The port-related past remains reflected in the preservation and restoration of each building. The first – the Bonded Warehouse – has been completed to become the new headquarters of a services business (Idom), and, the second, dedicated to public facilities for San Ignacio. New headquarters of IDOM

AIVP –  What has been the reaction of local residents to the project up to now? In a more general sense, how is the project being perceived? Is a consultation process envisaged as the project progresses?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – Urban proposals currently in place are already the result of processes of citizen participation and express the results agreed with the area’s neighbourhood association, during the preparation of which various interactions took place between residents and project managers.

Among other results of these processes, it is worth mentioning the action that has brought about a direct “improvement” for local residents: the pre-existing area of the riverbank was declared an “Area of Integrated Restoration” and the Society for Municipal Restoration established a specific programme, with a ring-fenced budget (donated by developers of the general project), and with a particular emphasis on supporting and helping owners and tenants to address the buildings’ restoration projects.

The implementation of this programme began before the general project, and more than 60% of the actions contained within it have already been completed. It has been managed with constant communication between affected neighbours and the Society for Municipal Restoration.

AIVP – Two thirds of Zorrotzaurre is dedicated to public spaces and facilities and 5473 apartments are planned. Economic activity, meanwhile, represents around 25% of planned construction. Can you tell us about the main plans for these different sectors? How are they distributed throughout the territory of Zorrotzaurre?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – The residential plan for Zorrotzaurre plans to dedicate 50% of housing to state-subsidized housing and the other 50% to private housing.

The promotion of state-subsidized housing is managed through a public-private partnership under the Basque Government (Regional Government of the Basque Country) which bought the land that had previously been property of the Port of Bilbao, until activity ceased.

The areas destined to use for economic activity have the strategic aim of creating an “urban technology park” as a headliner or appendix to the technology park created in the 1980’s on the outskirts of the city, incorporating, moreover, university facilities in those specialities (workshops, training, teaching, etc.) most closely linked to technological activities.

The model of the urban plan proposed starts out by designating purposes based on two principles:

  • the setting aside of space for facilities and public spaces (linear riverbank parks) at both extremes of the new island, as well as on the riverbanks of the new canal.
  • the formation of a “mix” of residential uses (housing) and economic activities (technological hubs) that prevents the creation of specialised urban areas, to boost the compact city model, seen not only from the point of view of density but also from the richness of functions and different activities. 2014, the Zorrotzaurre Land Reorganisation Project

AIVP – Are emblematic facilities also envisaged? And what complementarities are planned with the nearby sector of Abandoibarra, an area which is symbolic of the regeneration of Bilbao with various facilities installed there including, in particular, the Guggenheim museum?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – The Zorrotzaurre project represents the opportunity to bring continuity to the transformation of obsolete areas of the city, extending urban restoration downriver, to the border of the municipality of Bilbao.

Just as Abandoibarra was planned as a mixed-use zone, blending new housing with strategic facilities to strengthen it as a regional and services capital, as well as strengthening its tertiary identity, Zorrotzaurre is planned under the same mixed-use model, bringing together housing, establishing the aim of generating an urban centre of new economic activities that, together with the Technology Park, allows for the attraction of new companies orientated towards the world of knowledge-rich industries and the development of new technologies. This is all in accordance with the fundamental bases of the new Strategic Plan (towards the city of knowledge), that must guide the next steps in our transformation.

Zorrotzaurre has, moreover, some important areas set aside for new facilities of a local character, to serve its own citizens and those of the neighbourhood of San Ignacio, as well as plots of land and buildings for restoration to be dedicated for purposes orientated more at municipal level.
However, today, except for a preliminary project by Zaha Hadid, at a moment of concern over urbanisation and overcoming the crisis, the city does not have any projects closed to new strategic facilities that might come to the area.

AIVP – Finally, what impacts do you think the project will have and how does it fit in with the broader aims of the City and the greater Bilbao area?

Ibon ARESO MENDIGUREN – This project represents an important step in the process of transformation – restoration of the obsolete areas of the old industrial city and aims, on the one hand, to offer citizens a new urban space of high quality and on the other hand, to extend to the totality of our citizens the enjoyment of the riverbanks along the entire course of the river as it flows through our municipality.

At metropolitan level, this project represents the prolongation of the valley of the river, through the generation of a unifying force for new developments and, at the same time, as a facilitator for the continuity of the centrality of the municipality, downriver, until it reaches the neighbouring municipality of Barakaldo. And all of this is based on a model of sustainable transport in which the priority in the design and use of the new area focuses on pedestrians, cyclists and public transport – as it will be transport that will end up playing a major role – and to extend facilities for them throughout this new space, between Abandoibarra and the neighbouring municipality of Barakaldo.

AIVP, October 2014

Are members of AIVP :

Ayuntamiento de Bilbao : http://www.bilbao.net
Autoridad portuaria de Bilbao : http://www.bilbaoport.es
Bilbao Ría 2000 : http://www.bilbaoria2000.com

Download: Case Study Bilbao

20 June 2014

Port of Rouen: urban revitalisation and integration

rouen Marégraphes area, partial view © GPMR – HaropaRouen, the historic capital of Normandy located halfway between Le Havre and Paris, is also a great sea-port accessible to deep sea vessels via the Seine. For centuries the city’s heart beat to the rhythm of its port, until the massive destruction of the Second World War followed by new developments in ship design and the arrival of the container caused port activities to shift downstream to the west of the city.

At the beginning of the 1990s, the city started a long period of reflection on the future of the abandoned sites in its centre: the Marégraphes area on the right bank, and the industrial port sites just across the river. The Charter of objectives signed by the City and the Port in November 2000 marked the launch of a policy of revitalising the Marégraphes area (heritage docks) on the right bank, which is almost complete. The left bank is also being transformed. But in addition to redevelopment of the quays, a broad scope project is envisaged with an eco-district named after Flaubert.

To update our readers on the situation and get a better idea of the challenges of integrating this future eco-district which will lie alongside the industrial and port activities to the west, we talked to Régis Soenen, Director of Territorial Redevelopment and the Environment, and Pauline Barillon, Development Research Officer, at Grand Port Maritime de Rouen (GPMR), a member of GIE HAROPA

Download : Case Study – Rouen

AIVP – Perhaps it is still too early to assess the results of the operation in the Marégraphes area, but how do you view progress on the initial objectives which you set yourselves?

GPMR – I think you could say that the objectives of the Charter between the Port and the City have been respected overall. This is thanks particularly to the continuity of dialogue amongst port and urban stakeholders. The initial stress was on urban integration and making use of the Marégraphes area and its warehouses, which have great heritage value. The architectural specifications validated in 2002 by the Official Architect meant that the quality of the project was assured, and also that the redevelopment of these heritage buildings would be coherent as a whole. The warehouse rehabilitation project was managed by the Port, while the public spaces around the buildings and along the quay were developed jointly by the City, CREA (Conurbation Community) and the Port.. Marégraphes area, Shed B

The first phase, in five of the eight warehouses, was launched in 2003. Today, there are businesses (cafés, restaurants, winery, travel agency, etc.), services (water supply agency Seine-Normandie, France-Bleu radio station), sporting (snooker, fitness, bowling, squash, …) and cultural activities (H2O, Maison des Eco-sciences (a science and environment space), etc.) installed on an area of 5 ha and 1300 m of quays between the Guillaume le Conquérant bridge to the east and the Flaubert bridge to the west. The operation was due for completion in 3 years with shed 11, which has just been allocated: France 3 Television will move in when it is complete. City-port Interface, Map

AIVP – Apart from exceptional events such as the arrival of Armada (a tall ships rally) with its millions of visitors since 1989, does the number of people using the site pose congestion problems? How is access to the Seine managed through the existing district behind the quays?

GPMR – We have programmed separate flows for pedestrians, heavy goods vehicles, cars and buses to avoid conflicts between uses. On the other hand it is true that an access to the Seine and its quays could be opened through Dock 76, a commercial centre developed in the old building of the Rouen Docks and Warehouses Company, which is interested in gaining access to the quays used by the public. The same is true of the Luciline eco-district currently being built right beside Dock 76. Rouen Luciline will combine offices (40,000 m²) and residential buildings (1,000 units) on an 8 ha site. The housing area is being developed in the south, beside the Seine, and the name chosen for it, “Luciline – Rives de Seine”, speaks clearly of its hopes for access to the right bank of the Seine. The first two buildings will be delivered in July 2014. The district will extract geothermal energy from the water table.

AIVP – Still on the right bank but downstream of the Flaubert Bridge, the active port coexists with port infrastructure which has been or soon will be converted, like the Chai à vin for which you have just opened a call for tenders. Does this co-existence pose integration problems, and how does this affect your choices? In the case of the cruise ship terminal for example, are you still considering relocating it or creating a second terminal on the left bank as was proposed at one time?

GPMR – Yes, this sector combines a maritime museum, shed 23 which has been converted into a “World Music, Dance and Culture Room”, ship repair with a floating dry-dock, the Chai à vin, a yacht basin, a cruise ship terminal, and at the entrance to the basin, an aggregates terminal. Shed 23 ;   Floating Dock

As for cruise ships, although the industry is growing, the issue is not on the agenda. The existing terminal is big enough. Its proximity to the new developments on the right bank remains a strength, even if, as you say, its continuity with the Marégraphes area could be improved further. Furthermore, this type of territory is really a patchwork of different uses, there is little urban pressure here. The potential nuisances, especially associated with ship repair, have always been considered in our choice to develop no more than a yacht basin, rather than going for a marina with waterfront housing.

As for the Chai à vin, how it will be used still remains open subject to the offers we receive: it may equally well be given an urban use, or something connected with the port or logistics. But the quality of how it is integrated and landscaped will be one of the essential criteria when the award is made. The building, used for storing wine imported from Algeria, was the biggest Europe in the 1950s. It is technically complex, but it is also an important link with the past which must be preserved. Chai à vin

As for the aggregates terminal at the entrance to the basin, it does not really create problems, basically because it is at a good distance from any urban spaces (maritime museum). The space between the two could also be considered for holding events such as the Saint-Romain Fair. The question is still open.

AIVP – Turning to the left bank, and starting with the plans for the quays and warehouses opposite the Marégraphes area. Shed 105 has been demolished to make way for the start of a promenade, and shed 106 has been converted into a “Contemporary Music Scene”. What about the other warehouses?

GPMR – The Shed 106 conversion project was managed by the Conurbation Community (CREA). Its inauguration in 2010 really symbolised the launch of the transformation of the quays on the left bank. CREA is going to move into shed 108. The future of shed 107 between them remains open. While we are on the subject of CREA, the “Panoramas de la Crea” has been confirmed. This circular building will allow XXL panoramas to be projected in 360°. It will be built on the right bank between sheds B and C.. Shed 106

The landscaping of the left bank quays has been entrusted to the agency In-Situ. Phase one will be completed at the beginning of this summer. It may be extended past the Flaubert Bridge towards the Rollet Peninsula, a part of the port which used to be a coal-yard and which now contains a mound and a little wood to encourage biodiversity. In the long term, in 2016, this will become almost 14 ha of public space with a new promenade more than 1.8 km long.. Landscaping of the left bank quays 

AIVP – The redevelopment of the Rollet Peninsula, which used to be known as the “black village”, really is symbolic: it marks the transformation of a port territory which has lost its purpose, but it is also a part of the landscape which has been recycled, and provides a transition zone to the industrial and port activities nearby. Furthermore, it is in a sense an announcement of the ambition of the future Flaubert eco-district. How exactly will this theme of transition, and of integration, be handled between the industrial and port activities and the residential areas of the two towns involved in this future eco-district, Rouen and Petit-Quevilly? Presqu’île Rollet

GPMR – The 90 ha of this eco-district are presently occupied by a number of abandoned areas and a railway yard. It is planned to serve 10,000 people (inhabitants + workers) and the integration of its urban and port functions is of course essential. The real launch of the operation depends on the construction of a new stretch of road, at an estimated cost of €200 million, to continue the highway south from the Flaubert Bridge. It should be opened in 2020-2021. The majority of this future mixed district lies to the east of the planned approach road to the Flaubert Bridge. This new road will in itself form the first part of the transition between the centre of the new district and port activities to the west. Elsewhere, the general principles for the redevelopment of the district propose favouring economic activities in the western strip, easing the transition to the rest of the district. There will also be some form of separation for flows associated with port activities.. Map of the Eco-quartier ; Legend information

AIVP – The Sénalia Group and the Port have recently selected the “Silographes” project, proposed by the R-architecture studio. The 62 units of the Sénalia silos, which are a strong feature of the Rouen landscape, will be enhanced day and night by a host of mirrors and a moving light display by 2016. This brings us to another aspect of integration: the visual and landscaping integration of still active port infrastructure. This is not a very common approach. What were the reasons for the decision of the Sénalia Group? What will happen to the sugar terminal nearby? And apart from the question of visual integration, what are the risks associated with these activities? Silos Sénalia

GPMR – The huge silos of the Sénalia group are a real figurehead at the entrance to the port city. They are fully active, and keeping them in this strategic location is very important for the Sénalia Group, which has decided to anticipate possible future pressure on them to relocate. The port of Rouen has played the part of facilitator, and was also a member of the jury together with Sénalia and the city authorities concerned. The sugar terminal is more recent (1996) and its architectural design included the concept of integration.

As for the risks, the impact study carried out for the Flaubert eco-district confirmed that the planned urban zones were outside the safety boundaries of both installations. The same study also confirms that redevelopment of the left bank quays will contribute to improving the landscape of the Seine banks. One idea is for a “blue artery”, a succession of basins perpendicular to the Seine: this will have two functions, improving the landscape and managing risk, in this case risk of flooding.

AIVP : To conclude, this stress on revitalisation and integration is the guiding spirit of redevelopment along both banks of the Seine. The spirit of integration also guides the redevelopment and growth strategy of the Port of Rouen, in all its different installations between Rouen and Honfleur on the Seine Estuary. This is demonstrated, as Regis Soenen and Pauline Barillon noted, by the ten or more port-city charters signed by the port of Rouen, each time referring to some specific detail or demand affecting the territory (rural space, city, natural park) on which it is sited.

Aivp, june 2014

Download : Case Study – Rouen

The Grand Port Maritime de Rouen is a member of AIVP – www.rouen-haropaports.com

13 February 2014

Tangiers: the reconversion of the port is accelerating

cs_Tanger_dd_01vignetteLast September, King Mohammed VI officially launched the Tanger Métropole project. The project aims to make Tangiers more attractive to international travellers. That same objective is also behind Tanger Ville, the reconversion project for historic port zone, whose initial works began in 2011. The launching of Tanger Métropole was an opportunity for Morocco’s sovereign to review the state of progress of Tanger Ville. Two major aspects of the project – yachting and cruises – will show significant progress in 2014, with the partial commissioning of the marinas and the inauguration of the first stage of the cruise-ship dock expansion.

To learn more about these developments, we talked to Driss Benabad, Project Director at SAPT – the development corporation in charge of the port zone reconversion of Tanger Ville – AIVP member.

(All images : copyright SAPT)

The Tanger Ville project will position Tangiers as one of the major tourist, cultural, and events destinations in the Mediterranean. The reconversion of the 84 ha site, located in the city centre next to the Medina, is considered a unique opportunity to put City-Port relations on a new footing.
AIVP – In terms of the cruise industry, your stated goal is to receive 300,000 cruise passengers in 2016, once the reconversion is completed. What are the current numbers of cruise-ship passengers, and what is the rate of growth needed to achieve your goal?


Driss Benabad, Technical Director, SAPT: In spite of the international economic crisis, the cruise market has grown at an average rate of 3% since 2009. 2.1 million cruise passengers have visited our western Mediterranean region. On average, a cruise passenger directly spends 88 € during each stopover at a Mediterranean port. After a slow period in 2000-2003, Tangiers began to recover again – in 2004 – as a cruise destination, growing at 20.7% annually. In 2011, Tangiers received 113 cruise ships, for a total traffic of 102,500 passengers. Nationally, it is the third-ranked destination, with market shares of 24% and 20% respectively, in terms of the number of ship visits and number of tourists.cs_Tanger_dd_04For rapid growth of the cruise-ship activity in Tangiers, the ideal solution would be to complete the three berths in the short term, so as to be able to receive new-generation cruise ships: a 360-metre berth, a 270-metre berth, and finally a 260-metre berth. However, for budgetary reasons, the investments have been phased in two stages:

  • Phase 1: An 80 m extension of Dock 5 attached to the main wharf, and removal of the existing RoRo ramp, giving a total length of 260 m. This phase also includes the building of reception facilities. 6.2 million € will be invested over 10 months. Works progress: 100 %
  • Phase 2: A 360 m extension of the same dock, giving a total length of 620m, which is enough dock space for the simultaneous berthing of 2 ships. This phase also includes renovation of the commercial pier. This work involves an investment of 13.4 million €, and will be executed in 2015-2016.

Moreover, the fast-ferry link to Tarifa will be maintained: 3 berthing spaces will be dedicated to this activity. The maritime terminal will be upgraded and modernized.

cs_Tanger_dd_05AIVP – All these new dock facilities are certainly necessary for receiving cruise ships and passengers, but they are not, in themselves, sufficient to attract passengers and ship services. What are the main factors that are expected to increase the attractiveness of Tangiers?

Driss Benabad, SAPT: The studies we have undertaken, and the contacts we have made with cruise companies, all indicate that the port of Tangiers has great growth potential.

In fact, Tangiers has major assets that will support the growth of the cruise industry: a unique geographic location that is ideal for both Atlantic and Mediterranean itineraries, the rich history of the city and the surrounding region, and the adequate roadways and communications infrastructure with the rest of the Kingdom.

Being so near the Medina is also an excellent opportunity to promote cultural tourism. With this in mind, our company has undertaken renovation work on the wall of the Medina and the Kasbah, as well as opening the ancient doors and access ramps.

The expected result will be to attract 300,000 cruise passengers in 2016 and 750,000 in 2020. To achieve that goal, an action plan will be launched as a complement to infrastructure development, in coordination with stakeholders in the tourism sector. This involves the following aspects:

  • Diversification of activities offered to tourists;
  • Improving tourist reception facilities at the various sites they visit;
  • Improving the current ground transportation offer;
  • Promotion and communication of the region’s tourist attractions
  • Selecting a world-class cruise terminal managing company, etc.

AIVP – The urban cable-car project has received a lot of media coverage. Why did Tangiers choose this mode of transportation, and what criteria were used for selecting the locations for the stations?

Driss Benabad, SAPT: Indeed, in order to better connect the Port with the Medina and the new urban centre, and taking into account the diversity of future users – cruise passengers, boaters, and local residents – the new port of Tanger Ville will be equipped with a cable-car transportation system.
The cable-car system will be capable of handling a flow of 2,800 passengers per hour over a total distance of 2 km. It will link the Kasbah, the cruise terminal, the marinas, and Place Faro. Apart from its public transport function, it will in itself be a tourist attraction providing a scenic view of the city, the port, and the bay of Tangiers.
Two stations will be built at the port zone, and there will be another two stations in the city.


AIVP – In environmental terms, the cable-car system enjoys a positive image. The environment is also an important component of your project. Could you tell us a little more about it?
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Driss Benabad, SAPT : Cable-cars are indeed an ecologically sound transport system. But we could mention several other such elements.
In the first place, the Tanger Ville Port Reconversion Project has received environmental certification from the national environmental impact evaluation commission. Indeed, site development activities will be environmentally friendly. For example, when the new marina is built, the sand dredged will be transported and placed at several beaches in the Bay of Tangiers.
The vegetation system in the reconverted port will consist of species adapted to the bioclimatic characteristics of the Tangiers zone.
Moreover, the emblematic buildings of the port area will be restored and reconverted, in order to maintain the present atmosphere of the port. Similarly, nearby monuments will be restored and/or enhanced.
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AIVP – What are the objectives and the work schedule for the boating component, and how much of this work has already been completed?
Driss Benabad, SAPT : The boating/yachting market offers many opportunities. The port of Tanger Ville aims to become, by 2016, the leading yacht harbour not only of Morocco but of the entire Straits of Gibraltar area, and to offer one of the best ranges of services, with a capacity of 1,610 moorings. The long-term goal is to become the mega-marina of the entire region, with 3,000 moorings. The 1,610 mooring capacity will be achieved in 3 stages:

cs_Tanger_dd_091st stage: a new yacht harbour with 1,080-mooring berths will be built near the commercial jetty. Work started in May 2011, and completion is due in late 2015. This stage represents a total investment on the order of 37.5 millions €. At January 2014, the works were 85 % completed.
cs_Tanger_dd_102nd stage: at the location of the existing yacht harbour. This corresponds to the old port’s first phase of renovation. The work has been proceeding in stages since November 2011 and will continue till late 2014 (expansion and deepening of the harbour basin, with a capacity of 100 moorings, building a new basin intended for boat repair, etc.). This stage represents an investment of 7.8 million €. At late January 2014, the works were 50 % completed.
cs_Tanger_dd_113rd stage: Once the new fishing port is commissioned, the old port’s second reconversion phase will add another 430 moorings. These works involve an investment of 12.5 million € starting in January 2015, and will be completed in late 2016.

AIVP – What are your ambitions with regard to the Mediterranean boating and yachting market?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : Studies carried out by SAPT reveal a large discrepancy between supply and demand in the Mediterranean. There are around 1000 yacht harbours in the Mediterranean. Around 90% of capacity (around 350,000 berths) is concentrated within five countries (Italy, France, Spain, Greece and Croatia) catering for an estimated fleet of 600,000 boats (sailing boats and inboard motor boats).

The region of the port of Tangiers (covering the Moroccan, Andalusian and Portuguese Algarve coasts) is home to around sixty marinas with a total capacity of 22,000 berths.The region of the port of Tanger Ville is also affected by the lack of capacity experienced throughout the Mediterranean. The region has an estimated deficit of 15,000 berths and experiences increased pressure from the yachts that pass through the straights (assessed at 60,000 per year).

Tangiers will present an integrated solution bringing together diverse services linked to ship repair, stores for the sale of boats and spares as well as nautical schools (sailing, scuba diving and yachting schools, etc.). The port will include a 20,000 m² shipyard featuring a dock with a boatlift designed to dry-dock boats of 40 metres of length. Another space with a surface area in the order of 30,000m² may be dedicated to winter boat storage.

In order to seize all the opportunities presented by the passing of yachts through the straights, 25% of capacity will be dedicated to this traffic through the short and long-term rental of berths. The rest of the berths will be dedicated to national and foreign yachters. This will attract a significant number of tourists.

In order to develop yachting in Tangiers, the following measures will be put in place:

  • entrust a specialist with the management of the marina in order to ensure that it complies with the highest international standards;
  • simplify administrative procedures;
  • ensure the highest standards of cleanliness, security and respect for the environment;
  • encourage the creation of nautical schools (sailing, yachting, jet-ski, etc.);
  • organise events in Tangiers to promote yachting: nautical shows, sporting exhibitions, etc.
  • put in place a competitive and attractive price policy covering the granting of berths as well as their short and long-term rental.

AIVP – The Tanger Ville project is not only designed to draw greater visitor numbers, but also to create a new city-port relationship and offer local residents a new quality of life. What are the main principles being adopted to ensure the integration of new facilities with the existing city?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : The master plan of the reconversion project in the port zone of Tanger Ville will allow the port to:

  • find a better balance between public and private spaces in terms of surface area and organisation;
  • boast spaces that were built based on the project’s impact on the landscape when viewed from the town as well as from the port and the bay;
  • restore and reconvert all the monuments and symbolic buildings in the port zone in order to safeguard the spirit of the area;
  • balance urban functions in order to make the site a lively and bustling destination;
  • carry out a reconversion that works in harmony with the environment.

The project’s overall surface area is 84 ha, distributed as follows:

  • Public spaces: 30 ha
  • Road space: 10 ha
  • Port facilities: 30 ha
  • Built-up area: 14 ha

AIVP – I see that a large area (30 ha) will be destined for public spaces. Was this preference for “breathing space” rather than for “densification” decided on from the start, or had other denser scenarios been initially considered?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : The initial choice was to provide the city with 30 ha of public space, in view of the lack of parks and public spaces in the city. The project considers the creation of 5 public places:
  • cs_Tanger_dd_12Place Bab Al Marsa, or “Doorway to the Port”, covering 8 hectares located along the current port entrance area, from the facade of the RENSCHAUSEN buildings and the old train station, to the Borj Dar El Baroud. Place Bab Al Marsa will be the link between the old port and the Medina;
  • Place du large: located at the end of the commercial pier between the yacht harbour and the cruise harbour. Covering 5 hectares, Place du Large will offer a panoramic view of the sea and the Medina and will serve as an ideal multi-purpose site where visitors can stroll along the water front, and where different cultural events can be held;
  • Place de la Presqu’île (the Peninsula): located along the new Marina’s protective seawall, Place de la Presqu’île will cover a total area of 2 hectares. The elevation of this area will be two meters higher than the other wharfs, and it will be built to resemble a ship’s bridge. It will include promenades, restaurants and spaces for diverse activities;
  • cs_Tanger_dd_13Le Parc du Port: This large pine grove will be the project’s green heart, located from the old port’s new basin to the new yacht harbour, on 3 hectares;
  • Place of the Mosque, which will cover 1.5 hectares around the Great Mosque. This esplanade serves to connect the fishing port area with the rest of the project. This space will be the first stopping point for cruise passengers disembarking at the port of Tangiers.

cs_Tanger_dd_14AIVP – The new office space and residential space have been grouped mostly on a large pier. Why was that?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : The urban project of the Tanger Ville Port Zone will include the construction of office space (20,000 m²) as well as high-end residential space (80,000 m²). The creation of this component aims to turn this site into a dynamic living space, where people can live, work, and have fun.

With a view to maintaining a coherent urban design and preserve public spaces, this component was consolidated into a large pier, which is located next to the modern city centre, in perfect coordination with hotel services.

The large pier is located between the two marina basins and will be an ideal residential location for boaters, either for permanent residence or in transit.

cs_Tanger_dd_15cs_Tanger_dd_16AIVP – Would you say that these new developments will be a complement to, rather that competition for, the existing attractions?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : The scarcity of available real estate in the city – including the Medina – the disorganization of commercial activity in the city, and the potential number of customers in Tangiers, are all factors that prompted SAPT to propose an integrated project to complement the existing offer in the city.

The “commerce & animation” component of the project has two sub-components:

  • A large, world-class commercial centre, approximately 30,000 m² in size;
  • Ground-floor stores and boutiques covering about 20,000 m², and including:
    • Brand-name stores and the corresponding furnishings, etc.
    • Showrooms offering yachts and nautical sports equipment;
    • Cafés, restaurants and entertainment venues;
    • Arts and crafts stores, agencies, and services.
The commercial component of the project will benefit from the strategic location right in the city centre, just below the Medina. It will also benefit from the relative wealth and diversity of the tourist clientele: ferry passengers, cruise-ship passengers, boat owners and captains, local Tangiers customers, as well as other national and international visitors.
Market studies undertaken by SAPT indicate that we will receive 7 million visitors per year starting in 2016, with estimates of spending potential of more than 178 million € (2 billion dirhams) per year.


AIVP – What will be the total cost of the project, and what sources of financing and types of partnership have been considered?

Driss Benabad, SAPT : The implementation and the construction activities of the Tanger Ville Port Zone Reconversion Project will be completed in late 2016. The project represents a total investment of about 579 million € (6.5 billion Dirhams). The port infrastructure was financed by the State. The real-estate component will be developed by SAPT.
Calls for expression of interest were published to select pairs of investors–administrators to develop and manage the following components:
  • Hotels and reception facilities;
  • Commercial centre;
  • Cable-car system.cs_Tanger_dd_19
Negotiations are under way with the interested parties selected for each component.

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AIVP – February 2014
SAPT is a member of AIVP
15 October 2013

Guayaquil (Ecuador): the spectacular urban metamorphosis of a port-metropolis

cs_guayaquil_dd_04The relocation of port traffic downstream and the abandoning of the historical port site have given the city of Guayaquil an opportunity to completely redevelop its waterfront. Started 20 years ago, the “Malecón 2000” project has profoundly altered the city’s image by giving a facade on the Estuary. It has been hailed as one of the best and most successful urban renewals of Latin America.

The principal city of Ecuador with 3 million inhabitants, Guayaquil is not only the economic capital of this small Andean country (population 15 million), but also its largest port. Today a total of 22 million tons per year moves over the port of Guayaquil. In addition to its historical role as the port serving the towns of the “Sierra”, the high plateaux, and the capital, Quito, it is now the great metropolis of the “Costa”, a rich agricultural region with plantations of bananas, cocoa, tropical fruits and sugar for agro-industrial uses, and an aquiculture industry (prawns). The city lies along the banks of the Guayas estuary, at the confluence of the Babahoyo and Daule rivers. The new port, built in 1963, has for years been suffering access problems from the Gulf of Guayaquil, and the land earmarked for port development has long since fallen to anarchic city growth. Today, the port (2 terminals in concession and 13 privates terminals) no longer has room for the new infrastructure necessary for its modernisation. The commercial port abandoned its historic installations in the city centre, with quays along the estuary, decades ago.

Today, the Municipality is promoting studies in order to dredge the access canal to 11 metres and for an ambitious new project to re-site the port downstream at Posorja, closer to deep waters and where plenty of land is available. This project should bring new life to the port and the city of Guayaquil as Ecuador’s principal port. It will also reflect the particularly strong economic growth enjoyed by the country over the last decade. In the north, the ports of Manta (bulk cargoes) and especially Esmeraldas (oil exports from Amazonia – 30 million tons) should undergo similar extension works in the next few years.

The relocation of port traffic downstream and the abandoning of the historical site of maritime activity have also given the city of Guayaquil an opportunity to completely redevelop its waterfront along the Guayas Estuary. Started 20 years ago, the “Malecón 2000” project has profoundly altered the city’s image by giving the centre a facade on the Guayas Estuary. It has been hailed as one of the best and most successful urban renewals of Latin America.

A city adrift

When Leon Febres Cordero, ex-president of Ecuador and a local boy, became mayor of Guayaquil in 1992, the city was in a situation described by all observers as catastrophic. The majority of public buildings were in an indescribable state of abandonment, as were basic sanitation services. Urban construction was out of control, municipal finances were at an all-time low while the levels of insecurity were peaking… Today it is hard to imagine the state of the city only two decades ago!

Swift, decisive action was needed. Backing onto the city centre, and the few historic buildings which had resisted the ravages of time, the banks of the Guayas had been abandoned since 1963, when the new port had been built further down the estuary. Here as elsewhere, the city turned its back on its waterfront. In the first half of the 20th century, cargo vessels still used to tie up at the end of a series of jetties, and the wharves were the scene of an intense social life. Once it had solved the problems of its infrastructure and basic services, the new municipal administration decided to make this abandoned river bank the spear-point of its urban regeneration project.

A pragmatic method of exemplary effectiveness

Several key ideas have dominated the execution of this ambitious project:

Speed. The situation was urgent, and the choice of a pragmatic approach was made at once with the decision to set up an operational structure, Fundación Malecón 2000, with a substantial work force in all fields, which would be capable of advancing sector by sector while ensuring coordinated management of the whole project.

A strategic master plan: « Image-Objective ». In 1996, the “Image-Objective” was drafted on the initiative of a local bank, “La Previsora”, and a team from Oxford Brookes University, modelled on the regeneration of waterfronts in North America, Europe and Argentina. « Image-Objective » was accepted by the Municipality in the same year, and the project was started.

Public spaces. Ignoring calls for privatisation, the so-called “Malecón Simon Bolívar” project was designed from the outset as an open, public space, including private cultural and commercial facilities open to the general public. On completion, the project had to be capable of generating the financial means necessary for its upkeep and evolution in the long term.


A principle of urban regeneration. The need was immediately perceived for the project to be a strong force for drawing the urban regeneration of the whole city behind it. The political, economic and social forces active in the city have been heavily involved in the definition of the project, which has proved successful in mobilising action. The local population has supported the project whole-heartedly, especially through the Malecón 2000 Foundation.

A specific tool. The need soon became apparent for a specific operational tool for planning, developing, building, administering, financing and maintaining the future Malecón Simon Bolívar. The Malecón 2000 Foundation was born in 1997 to meet this need. Legally the foundation is a private, non-profit-making organization which brings together the most diverse and representative institutions of Guayaquil. The city has handed over to the Foundation all the land on which the Malecón is built, consisting of 17 hectares along the river bank, on a 99-year lease.

Complementary financing. Finally, to finance the projects, two modes of operation were selected. On the one hand – a fairly classic solution for this kind of operation – concessions were granted for the commercial operation of certain private facilities (commercial premises, restaurants, IMAX cinema, etc.). On the other, a law was passed on 15 October 1997 establishing that 25% of donations or grants made by natural or legal persons to projects developed by the foundation could be deducted from tax liabilities for the financial years 1997 – 2002.

The latter financial mechanism allowed the Municipality to draw on considerable private funds to spend on the project immediately, although its own initial contribution could not exceed 25,000 USD. The number of private donors reached the remarkable figure of over 47,000 in 2001, a clear sign of public enthusiasm for the initiative! The redevelopment of the public spaces, which form 80% of the total area, thus benefited immediately from high quality work with a very carefully designed urban infrastructure. It is worth noting that 90% of the funds received by the foundation must be spent on effective project execution, and that a very strict control system has been set up.

To define and execute the project, an international team of urban planners, architects, landscape designers, etc., working in conjunction with Ecuadorian professionals, was rapidly appointed by means of international competitions. The operating team installed in the Foundation’s offices was coordinated by the British project leaders from Oxford Brookes University.


2001: “Guayaquil Siglo 21” Foundation set up

To complete the existing package, and considering the scale of the task of urban regeneration, a new operational instrument was set up in 2001. The Guayaquil Siglo 21 (Guayaquil 21st Century) Foundation, the sword in the Municipality’s hand, has wider powers than the Malecón 2000 Foundation, and its mission is to execute all the city’s urban redevelopment projects. A Municipal Foundation in private law, Guayaquil Siglo 21 now manages the municipal urban renewal budget without assistance from private donors. Under this regime it has financed numerous urban regeneration programmes; it is contractually bound to the Malecón 2000 Foundation, which continues to carry out its mission to redevelop and manage Malecón Simon Bolivar and other wharves located on an arm of the sea known as Estero Salado.

Malecón Simon Bolívar, a successful waterfront project for an ambitious urban regeneration plan

This ambitious first project in Guayaquil’s urban renewal is a continuous promenade 2.5 kilometres long running along the city’s riverbank. The central point is a monument commemorating the meeting between two leaders of South America’s Independence, Simon Bolivar and José de San Martin, where 9 de Octubre Avenue, the city centre’s main artery, meets the promenade. The long promenade ends at the foot of Las Peñas hill, which is also being redeveloped for tourism under another programme. The colourful two-storey traditional buildings are being preserved and refurbished for handicrafts shops and tourism services. In what has become the classic pattern of waterfront regeneration, the rhythm of the promenade is strongly marked by some of the typical recreational, commercial and cultural activities of waterfronts.


The whole project has been constructed in little more than ten years, a remarkable achievement which many elected officials in Europe can only dream of!

The principal structures from south to north are:

  1. The « Palacio de Cristal » (the Glass Palace), an old commercial hall belonging to the Eiffel workshops, which has been transformed into a multicultural space;
  2. a commercial centre housing more than 200 commercial premises of varying sizes;
  3. a big public area around the monument to Bolívar and San Martin, with two spectacular viewpoints giving views over the estuary;
  4. a huge botanical garden and children’s play area;
  5. two museum spaces dedicated to archaeology and contemporary art;
  6. a theatre and the IMAX cinema;
  7. underground parking below the Malecón surface.


This very diverse range of spaces is also a response to the cultural demand of a large, international city. Each structure was subject of specific competitive tenders, producing high quality projects. Today, Malecón Simon Bolívar is not only a favourite Sunday walk of the people of Guayaquil, but also one of the city’s principal tourist attractions. It is used by more than 20 million people every year.

So this operation to renew the Guayaquil waterfront, now remarkably well maintained, is a complete success, and demonstrates the viability of the management model applied. One of the keys to its success is certainly the continuity of Municipal policies since the initiative was launched in 1992. After Leon Febres Cordero, Jaime Nebot, mayor of the city since 2001, remained committed to actively pursue his predecessor’s urban redevelopment project. The model applied to create the Malecón Simon Bolívar has been reproduced with identical success along Estero Salado, an arm of the sea which forms the western boundary of the city centre and is connected to Malecón Simon Bolívar by the emblematic 9 de Octubre Avenue. It too has now been completely redeveloped.


Puerto Santa Ana, the emergence of a new residential and business district

To the north of Malecón Simon Bolívar, on the other side of the historic Las Peñas district where the city was founded in 1547, Puerto Santa Ana is a prolongation of the city’s transformation along the Estuary. The operation in this old port and industrial district was started in 2007, during the first term of the current mayor Jaime Nebot, and presents an evolution in the technique for urban transformation.

The whole ex industrial site, in particular with large breweries, was purchased by the Municipality. After the banks had been consolidated and roads built, half of the area was sold to private sector investors who are obliged to respect a very strict set of specifications. In particular, they are required to preserve and redevelop an important part of the existing industrial heritage. For example, silos in the sector have been converted into flats. The district is basically earmarked as a new residential sector with a collective housing for high earners.


Meanwhile the Municipality, through the Guayaquil Siglo 21 Foundation, has redeveloped public spaces with the same care shown in earlier operations. 50% of this space remains public and forms an extension of the promenade along the estuary. With the sales of these areas for the construction of dense private projects, the city hopes to obtain revenues with which to continue its urban regeneration policy.Redevelopment work continues to the north with the introduction of residential and office blocks, such as “The Point” – at 36 storeys the highest in the country – which will become emblematic of Guayaquil’s burgeoning new business district.


Port-city governance for the future?

Other challenges lie ahead for the port-city of Guayaquil. The announcement of the relocation of part of the port’s functions and the creation of new container terminals should trigger overall consideration on development of the port-city zone, especially road transport problems.

Moreover, the city of Guayaquil is regularly affected by the “El Niño” weather phenomenon, and better coordination between port and city development would probably allow problems resulting from flooding of the rivers to be handled better.

The current institutional situation of the port-city, where management of the principal port is directly dependent on a Port Authority attached to the national Port Directorate, and completely independent of the Municipal administration, does nothing to facilitate dialogue. The site for the relocation of the port is particularly controversial.

AIVP is very familiar with this type of situation, but there is little chance of evolution without awareness of the benefits of setting up a port-city partnership which will serve the global ambitions of Guayaquil the port-city!


The City of Guayaquil is a member of AIVP


Downlooad: Guayaquil Case Studies

19 June 2013

Integrating the Port and the City of Rijeka onto the international scene: the Rijeka Gateway Project

In the 1990s the necessity to stop the steady decrease of Port of Rijeka traffic volume imposed a new strategy and development plans to re-boost and ensure the competitiveness of the Port of Rijeka.
The Rijeka Gateway Project is now entering in a decisive implementing phase. The Port and the City of Rijeka are both AIVP members since many years. M. Vojko Obersnel, Mayor of Rijeka City, discussed with us the main stakes and challenges of this project and how it will enhance the attractiveness of the Port and the City, giving to the Port City of Rijeka a new role on the international scene.

Based on a study prepared by the consultants of Rotterdam Maritime Group, the new Master plan and Port Modernisation Project – The Rijeka Gateway Project – got the support of The World Bank through a series of loans which were granted between 2003 and 2009. The partial relocation of port activities out of the city centre makes room for new urban developments on the waterfront and, in parallel for a new quality of life for the whole city.
The Rijeka Gateway Project is now entering in a decisive implementing phase. The Port and the City of Rijeka are both AIVP members since many years. M. Vojko Obersnel, Mayor of Rijeka City, discussed with us the main stakes and challenges of this project and how it will enhance the attractiveness of the Port and the City, giving to the Port City of Rijeka a new role on the international scene.

AiVP: The Rijeka Gateway Project has two main port components: on the Western part of the port with the new development of the port facilities at Zagreb Pier, and on the East with the redevelopment and expansion of the Brajdica Container Terminal. A design and construction contract has been signed in April 2012 with Italian companies for the first phase of the Zagreb Pier Container Terminal. ICTSI, which became a majority shareholder in the concessionaire of the Brajdica Container Terminal in early 2011, has begun its upgrading.
M. Obersnel, as many other port cities around the world, the Port of Rijeka is now engaged in a redevelopment on itself. This one combines a rationalisation of the existing port areas and uses, with their partial expansions. Could you summarize which are the main aims of these two projects, the current state of their implementation and their schedules?

M. Obersnel, Mayor of Rijeka City:

Rijeka within the Pan-European Transport Corridors

Briefly, the Rijeka Gateway Project will revive and promote the importance and the effectiveness of the Rijeka Transportation Route within the European Union and hinterland outside of the EU. At the same time, this is a transportation route of great national importance. Between Rijeka and the Croatian-Hungarian border, it fosters life and economical activities and involves somehow more than 2.5 Million people located in the most developed Croatian counties and cities. Honestly, we are fully aware that, excluding highways, the other two components of this transportation route, the port and the railways need to be modernized, radically and fast if we want to keep pace with other traffic axes. So, the Brajdica Terminal, which is completed and by beginning of July this year it should be in full function, gives us a chance to enhance the container turnover yearly up to 600,000 TEU.  After the 1st phase of construction by 2017, the Zagreb Pier Terminal will help to raise the yearly turnover of containers through port of Rijeka to more than 1 Million TEU.

The construction of the second phase of the Zagreb Pier Terminal can additionally enlarge total port capacity up to 1.2 Million TEU; however this phase will depend on future concessionaire. Apart from the containers, our port will mark a remarkable turnover of liquid cargo (5-8 Million tons yearly), general and bulk cargo (4-5 Million tons yearly). Summarizing all these facts, I would say that the final aims refer not just to reviving the transporting role, but also to provoking the transformation impact on the Croatian economy, by attracting new investments and developing new technologies.

On the 20th May 2013 a large ship from China reached the Adriatic Gate Container Terminal – AGCT, an ICTSI Group Company, managing and operating the Brajdica Container Terminal in Rijeka. The ship brought new equipment: 10 new cranes (2 Post Panamax size quayside gantry cranes, 6 Rubber Tired Gantries (RTG – cranes for the storage area) and 2 Rail Mounted Gantries (RMG – cranes for the rail area). The new equipment is expected to be in full function by the beginning of July 2013.

And, the newly constructed BIP (Border Inspection Point) station, as a prerequisite for Croatia to join the EU as from July 1st onwards; all cargo of animal or vegetable origin which is imported into the European Union has to be inspected within the port(s). The presence of BIP station at AGCT will enable Rijeka to be the first Port of Call on the North Adriatic.

AiVP : The current port activities, and the planned ones, are quite close to the City. Which negative impacts of the previous port activities will be minored or even cancelled thanks to the new port developments? And which integration measures are planned to reduce the possible remaining negative impacts?

M. Obersnel: The urban renewal of the Delta AreaThe most important improvement will happen within the city centre. After removing certain port facilities, the urban renewal of the Delta area and the Baross Port will be enabled. However, the activities of the container terminals will eventually bring some negative impact related to noise and  light, which have already caused complains from citizens who live in the vicinity of the Brajdica Container Terminal, as it is located pretty close to the residential areas.

We have resolved some of the bad impacts, such as the lighting. The monitoring system will soon be activated, so we intend to have the full control over the situation and the possibility to influence the work process in order to avoid conflict situations.

AiVP :  One of the objectives of the Rijeka Gateway Project is to re-open the city to the sea. Cities and Ports around the world are often confronted with the problem of physical barriers (highways, railways, etc…) between the city and the sea. In Rijeka, a marshalling yard and railways used for the port activities constitute such a barrier. But railway is also a more sustainable transport mode for port activities.
Which solutions are considered to solve such a dilemma and to combine opening the city to the sea while preserving sustainable transports for a port traffic that is planned to increase?

Implementing of modern criteria in the reconstruction of the railway and port inffrastructure

M. Obersnel: The best and the final solution for the railway connections in Rijeka will be the new railway bypass. Unfortunately, the present economic situation forces us to look for other, easier and cheaper solutions. One of such solutions is giving up the shore railway (we plan to use it for the city railway), and the other solution refers to the reconstruction of existing railway crossing the city area. By implementing the modern criteria in the reconstruction of the railway, conflicts with the urban area should be avoided. This means that the conflict crossings of the railway with the roads and pedestrian corridors will be resolved as well as the problems of noise, vibrations etc.
The railway should be used also for public transportation. The parts of railway that are visible in the urban area and citizens’ access spots (as it will become a city railway) should be arranged as attractive as possible. We think that such measures can break the idea of the railway as a barrier.

AiVP : On the Western port, some warehouses will be demolished and other ones rehabilitated for new port functions. But the existing huge grain silos are also a visual and physical barrier between the City and the Sea. It was envisaged to have them demolished and rebuilt 15 kms away in a new port zone. Is that still planned? Does their reconversion to urban functions has also been considered initially?

M. Obersnel : To demolish the grain silos or to rehabilitate them – the question is still open. The solution will resolve from the development policy of the Rijeka port systems. We have to be open and admit that these questions are not our priority. The core of our interest lies in the fastest possible modernization of the railway and the construction of new specialized container terminals. However, when tackling the interventions with gradual effects, we cannot refrain from giving services to handle other types of cargo.

AiVP : Between the Eastern and the Western part of the Port and the City, the Delta / Porto Baros areas is the third component of the Rijeka Gateway Project. These areas were used for port activities (mainly for the handling and storage of timber) until the middle of 2012. Their relocation to other parts of the port makes room for a new Port/City interface. 17 ha are concerned of which 13.7 ha for urban development, 1.8 ha for a marina and 2.2 ha for public infrastructures and parks.
The project includes the construction of a new passenger terminal within the existing passenger pier. It will enhance the attractiveness of Rijeka as a passenger port. Which are the expected growth in the passenger traffic and the possible economic impact on the City?

Maritime Passenger Terminal

M. Obersnel : The first phase of the maritime passenger terminal has already been constructed at the breakwater foot. Unfortunately, the seasonal character of travelling, the shortage of connection lines between Rijeka and the islands in catchment area as well as other cities along the Croatian coast, has been affecting us by a decreasing trend of passengers during last four years.  So, our important task is to make our Port more attractive to cruise operators, and also to keep on requesting from the Ministry of the Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure of the Republic of Croatia to significantly enhance the local sea traffic.

AiVP : Which kind of passenger terminal is planned? A “mono-functional one” solely dedicated to port functions or is there a possibility to implement a facility mixing port and urban functions (shops, restaurants, views, public spaces, etc…) as we can observe now more and more in other port cities?

M. Obersnel : We have in mind a passenger terminal that involves both, the content of a passenger terminal and the contents dedicated to citizens and visitors. Moreover, the Terminal is situated next to the Baross Port and its contents should be interesting also to the nautical tourist. Generally speaking, the urban redevelopment project will show additional directions for the development of contents on the Passenger Terminal and in its vicinity.

Delta Area

AiVP : The possible guidelines and requirements for the development of the Delta & Porto Baros areas have been prepared by Cowi Consultants and Gehl Architects from Copenhagen, Denmark. They suggested a division in three districts: a park district on the Northern part, the closest to the city centre; a maritime district on the South directly opened to the sea and connected to the marina planned on the Baros zone; and, in-between, an urban district. A large part is reserved for free spaces as the total building volume is limited to 40% of the whole area (1.2 million m³).
Could you summarize which are the main components of the planned built facilities and how they will complement the existing ones of the city centre?

M. Obersnel : I have to partly correct the initial context of your question. In their study, Cowi Consultants and Gehl Architects just followed a land use of Delta area and Baross Port envisaged by the Physical Plan of the City of Rijeka, approved in 2003. The mentioned Plan divides the Delta area into two main portions: the northern, envisaged to be arranged as a City park, encompassing 4 ha of land between the river and the canal, and the southern portion of 12 ha approx., located also between the river and the canal, but open to the sea and directly connected with Baross Port, with stunning views on the Rijeka bay, the islands, the mountains and the rest of the city. This portion of the Delta area is recognized as a mixed use area with a combination of residential and business area, retail, services, public, hotel and facilities of all kinds.
The interface with the marina and its facilities should bring a new identity and add something unique that does not already exist in the city. The structure within the Delta Area should be of a new character and not a copy of existing city structures. But, due to worthy and recognizable existing city centre, the Delta area should in the same time be developed as an extension of the city centre. Precisely, the old part of the City centre and the new one has to pervade each other and function as a whole. The public interest would be represented by a new multifunctional hall, an aquarium and a variety of public areas (squares, streets, promenades, sidewalks, etc).

AiVP : Two landmark buildings could be constructed according to Gehl Architects: one in the “urban district” and the other one in the “Maritime District”. Which kind of equipment could be used and for which functions?

M. Obersnel : Usually, the landmarks are iconic buildings in terms of height, design, position, typology and/or similar properties. We have not already précised which buildings and how many of them have to be designed and developed in such a way, which also emerged from our concept of urban planning and architectural design. Namely, the first step will be the launching of public competition for urban design of the Delta area and Baross Port at the beginning of June and will last till the beginning of October 2013. This competition will be of international character, but under one condition: the architects and urban planners from outside of Croatia can participate if they would engage at least one Croatian architect.  Further developers are expected to be selected through international bidding procedure next year, and they will be obliged to develop the site in accordance with the best of entries from the previous competition. So, in direct negotiation between the City, the developer and the public opinion, we also expect to define the landmarks.

Urban Design of the Delta Area and Baross Port

AiVP : Gehl Architects has also suggested a phasing strategy aimed at developing first the facilities which could attract people and visitors on the redeveloped areas with the double objective of generating revenues and attracting private investors and partners for the following stages. Such a strategy could be considered in other port cities projects and will be of great interest to the members of AIVP. Could you explain it further?M. Obersnel : The (re)development in phases is acceptable due to many reasons. We are fully aware that at this moment the Baross Port could be converted into a marina very quickly and without big expenditures. But the final proposal of phases will reflect a real relationship between the specific investors’ expectations and the real estate market respond.

AiVP : To conclude, such projects are of course a long way process, sometimes generating some impatience from the citizens and partners. Even that is still an on-going project, which are the main lessons you can emphasize till now and which are your main expectations in the close future?

M. Obersnel : The citizens are impatient, indeed, and so are the experts, which are not to be forgotten, because the Delta urbanization project is recognized as a project of the century and as an opportunity to create new jobs and to realize the best achievements in urbanism, architecture, public space arrangement. The future investors and developers should also be aware of this. Many examples in the world confirm my words and show that similar principles had to be obeyed.
The Delta Area should inspire the city with new life and good vibrations. The new attractions in the area should add value to the existing city life in Rijeka and support the already progressing development of other city functions (university, port, green industries, etc.) in order to constitute the city as to become more attractive for new citizens who will choose Rijeka as a temporary or permanent place to live.
The city of Rijeka has a desire for an identity related to water, events, health, sport, culture, nature and food. Rijeka has a strong potential for practicing a natural way of living with beaches, mountains and walking tracks. In relation to other towns and cities in the region, Rijeka can offer unique cultural activities. In developing the Delta Area, these identities could be reached and even expanded.

The Delta area will soon receive a new identity

The Port Authority of Rijeka and Rijeka City

are members of AIVP

Download – Rijeka Case Study